March 2016

Explain Deadlock Modelling and Strategies along with an example


As stated in previous topic, in Deadlock situation, a process waits resources which are using by other process without releasing its own resources. It is therefore causes all the processes waiting and waiting for the resources of each other; hence it brings critical condition to make deadlock condition.

In this chapter, we are going to model deadlock condition by using directed graph. Here we use directed graph to show whether it is requesting resources or holding resources. And circle are used to denote process whereas rectangle refers the resources.


Deadlock Modelling
Fig: Block Diagram of Deadlock Modelling
Above diagram shows the modelling process of deadlock, it shows requesting and holding of resources in/from a process. In the figure, A process is requesting T resource one time. In the bottom fig, A is holding T resource.


In fact, there is not solution of deadlock condition, that is why it is known as non-resolving situation. But a good programmer must be known with this fact before working on any project. S/he must be careful about the dealing of deadlock. A programmer has to consider 4 strategies to deal with deadlock. They are as follows:

  1. Ignoring the deadlock problem
  2. Detection and Recovery
  3. Avoiding Dynamically with Resource Allocation
  4. Prevention of Deadlock
Above four strategies are common and most important part of a programmer. S/he must apply one of these strategies which helps them to deal with deadlock. But among them prevention and dynamic avoidance are the best away of dealing with deadlock because it does not let deadlock condition to occur in a task like the speech "Prevention is better than cure". 

Ignoring can not be solution of any problem; ignoring of that problem obviously damages and lose something of your task. Detection and recovery somewhat can get back your data and information by detecting that deadlock. Allocating resources carefully in the different processes, a programmer can keep away the task out of the deadlock condition dynamically.

Define Operating System. List out its types and explain services.


basic block diagram of operating system
Block Diagram of Operating System
Generally, operating system works as an inter-mediator between computer and users. Actually, it is a group of software or applications that handles all the computer hardware and services of computer programs. Allocation of memory and controlling them is one of its basic service. In fact, Operating System can be categorized according to their processing nature and brand.

A. On the basis of processing nature, the types of OS are as follows:

  1. Real Time OS
  2. Multitasking OS
  3. Network OS
  4. Distributed OS
  5. Batch Processing OS
Except these five, there are also other types of operating system like, multi-processing os, multi-programming os etc. However, these are the basic types of Operating System

B. On the basis of brand, the types of OS are categorized as below:
  1. Windows OS
  2. Iphone Operating System (IOS)
  3. Android OS
  4. MAC OS
  5. Linux OS
  6. Unix OS
These six operating systems are also common types of operating system now available or used in IT field. Among them, IOS, and Android are mostly used as operating system of Smartphones. However, windows OS is both used in smartphone and desktop or computer. MAC, Linux, Unix are mostly used in desktop. Linux and Unix are mostly preferred by network programmers. 

Services in the terms of Operating System are executing program, running IO operating, establishing communication, manipulating files, detecting errors, allocating resources, protecting data and information etc.

1) Protection of Data and Programs:
Obviously, data and information have to be protected from various viruses and malware. It is common but most essential service of an OS.

2) Resource Allocation among users and processors:
Resource allocation needs frequently if an Operating system is working on the multi-programming, multi-processing or time-sharing environment.

3) Error Debugging: 
There may be lots of bugs into a programs and application and they must be checked and corrected. Error debugging is actually a process of finding bugs and correcting. An OS must have ability of error debugging.

4) Establishing Communication: 
Nothing is possible without communication. An OS must provide communication services. It is frequently need in a distributed environment. OS routes and makes an way of establishing of communication between two systems. Communication may be between two different devices or different processes of a single system. 

5) Manipulation of Files: 
File contains collection of data and information. Files must be saved into a computer memory. Users should have facility to store, delete and update that information. And all these are made possible by operating system.

6) I/O Service: 
In a computer, users can give input, s/he can takes output for a particular purpose. There are many device drivers used in an Operating System to facilitate this service. Device driver operates a hardware on the basis of operating system. Operating system gives accessibility to that device.

10 Things That Encourage People To Choose Blogger for Blogging Purpose


Blogger (blogspot) is one of the best blogging platform, and it is one of the best product of Google. Its users have been increasing day by day. Unlike the wordpress, it has some limit features. However, it has many more important merits. Being a product of google, some SEO experts recommend this platform for blogging purpose. Many bloggers choose blogspot because it is a simple freely provided blogging system by google. It facilitates us to choose sub-domain, but you also can add your custom domain name, and it is free of cost. That is why, you do not need to buy any other blogging CMS.

Why to choose blogger for blogging purpose ?
  1. Very simple and easy to use
  2. It is a Free System
  3. Light weight blogging CMS
  4. Unlimited Space
  5. Provides Free Templates
  6. SEO Friendly System
  7. Supports for Adsense Monetization
  8. Provide HTTPs protocol (blog visible in encrypted connection)
  9. Provides service to import and export the contents
  10. A product of Google

Database Management System Overview


Database Management Systems is basically called as DBMS, is a software which is used to manage interrelated data and information in order to select, retrieve, and update them back easily. Some components of Database Management Systems are:

Data: Data are raw facts that are collected figure from different sources like reports, statistical, queries etc. It does not have any meaning, that is why it is known as non-processed information. Data can be numbers, words, symbols etc. However, they should not represent some specific meanings.

Information: Information are known as a processed data that have at least one significant meaning.

Database: Database represents a collection of data related to a particular subject. Data and Information contains into database in an organized way. Data of database can be accessed easily. Telephone directory, marks sheet, dictionary etc are the best examples of databases.

CSS 3 Mega Menu For Blogger


CSS stands for Cascading Sheet Style. CSS gives the style to the HTML tags. In earlier phase of web, there had not been developed the CSS 3. Now CSS 3 has reduced the long and vague and more difficult codes of javascript and jquery. CSS 3 is the latest version of CSS.

By the way making mega menu using jquery and javascript is very hard to understand. Most of the designers just copy and paste to use the mega menu. But using CSS 3 is very easy to make mega menu. Here I am just showing tips to create mega menu using CSS 3. Follow the bellow steps and make a mega menu for your blogger and your html/css website.
CSS 3 mega menu

How to make mega menu using CSS 3?

Step 1: Open any platform like Notepad or Dreamweaver.
Step 2: Put the below code into the middle of <style> </style>.
.main_menu{ background:#006;}
.main_menu ul li a{ font-size:15px; font-weight:bold; text-transform:uppercase; color:#fff; padding-right:25px !important; padding-left:25px !important;}
.main_menu ul li a:hover{ background: #008821;}
a.focus{ background:#008821;}
/*mega menu*/
#menu, #menu ul {
    margin: 0;
    padding: 0;
    list-style: none;
}
/*
#menu {
   margin: 20px 0px 0px 0px;
    border: 1px solid rgba(85, 78, 27, 0.25);
 background-color: #033;
    background-image: linear-gradient(#444, #111);
  border-radius: 6px;
  box-shadow: 0 1px 1px #777;
}
*/
#menu:before,
#menu:after {
    content: "";
    display: table;
}
#menu:after {
    clear: both;
}
#menu {
    zoom:1;
}
#menu li {
    float: left;
/*    border-right: 1px solid #777;
*//*    box-shadow: 1px 0 0 #444;
*/    position: relative;
}
#menu a {
    float: left;
    padding: 12px 30px;
    color: #fff;
    text-transform: uppercase;
    font: bold 14px Arial, Helvetica;
    text-decoration: none;
/*    text-shadow: 0 1px 0 #000;
*/}
#menu li:hover > a {
    color: #fff;
}
*html #menu li a:hover { /* IE6 only */
    color: #fff;
}
#menu ul {
z-index:999 !important;
    margin: 20px 0 0 0;
    _margin: 0; /*IE6 only*/
    opacity: 0;
    visibility: hidden;
    position: absolute;
    top: 40px;
    left: 0;
    z-index: 1;  
background:#006 !important;
/*    background: #033 !important;
*/ /*background: linear-gradient(#444, #111);
*/
/*   box-shadow: 0 -1px 0 rgba(255,255,255,.3);
*/    border-radius: 3px;
    transition: all .4s ease-in-out;
}
#menu li:hover > ul {
    opacity: 1;
    visibility: visible;
    margin: 0;
}
#menu ul ul {
    top: 0;
    left: 130px;
    margin: 0 0 0 20px;
    _margin: 0; /*IE6 only*/
/*    box-shadow: -1px 0 0 # FFF;    
*/}
#menu ul li {
    float: none;
    display: block;
    border: 0;
    _line-height: 0; /*IE6 only*/
/*    box-shadow: 0 1px 0 #777, 0 2px 0 #999;
*/}
#menu ul li:last-child {
    box-shadow: none;  
}
#menu ul a {  
    padding: 10px;
    min-width: 130px;
    _height: 10px; /*IE6 only*/
    display: block;
    white-space: nowrap;
    float: none;
    text-transform: none;
}
#menu ul a:hover {
/*    background-color: #0186ba;
*//*    background-image: linear-gradient(#04acec, #0186ba);
*/}
#menu ul li:first-child > a {
/*    border-radius: 3px 3px 0 0;
*/}
#menu ul li:first-child > a:after {
    content: '';
    position: absolute;
    left: 40px;
    top: -6px;
    border-left: 6px solid transparent;
    border-right: 6px solid transparent;
/*    border-bottom: 6px solid #444;
*/}
#menu ul ul li:first-child a:after {
    left: -6px;
    top: 50%;
    margin-top: -6px;
    border-left: 0;
    border-bottom: 6px solid transparent;
    border-top: 6px solid transparent;
    border-right: 6px solid  #066;
}
#menu ul li:first-child a:hover:after {
/*    border-bottom-color: #04acec;
*/}
#menu ul ul li:first-child a:hover:after {
    border-right-color: #0299d3;
    border-bottom-color: transparent;
}
#menu ul li:last-child > a {
    border-radius: 0 0 3px 3px;
}
/*mega menu*/
#menu-trigger { /* Hide it initially */
    display: none;
}
/*End Mega Menu*/
Step 3: Now use the below code into the <body> </body> tag.
<ul id="menu" class="main_menu">
<li><a href="#" class="focus">Home</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Nepal</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#">Trekking</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#">Everest Base Camp Trek</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Everest Circuit Trek</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Annapurna Base Camp Trek</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Annapurna Circuit Trek</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Langtang Trek</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Ghorepani Trek</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#">Tours</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#">Kathmandu Nagarkot Tour</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Lumbini Pilgrimage Tour</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Kathmandu Pokhara Tour</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Kathmandu Heritage Tour</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#">Adventure Activities</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#">Paragliding in Pokhara</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Bungee Jumping</a></li>
<li><a href="#">River Rafting</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#">Trishuli River Rafting</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Kaligandaki River Rafting</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Marshyandi River Rafting</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Karnali River Rafting</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#">Tibet</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#">Mount Kailash Tour</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Kathmandu Lhasa Tour</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Tibet Overland Tour</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#">Bhutan</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#">Duk Path Trek</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Chomolari Trek</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Bhutan Tour</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#">India</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#">Taj Mahal Tour</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Darjeeling Sikkim Tour</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Ladakh tour</a></li>
<li><a href="#">India Gate Tour</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#">Private Day Tours</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#">Go For Nepal One Day Private Tour</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Kathmandu Heritage One Day Tour</a></li>
<li><a href="#">Nagarjun One Day Hiking</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#">Blog</a></li>
<li><a href="#">About Us</a></li>
</ul>
Step 4: Now Save it.

The above code can be also used into blogger. You can also use this code to create mega menu for your blogger. So use this code into your blogger. Please contact us if any problems occur during this process.

How to Add Search Engine Friendly Post Title


Google SEO
Indeed content is the king in search engine. And then we can say title is the queen. almost more than 70% visitors come from search engine which depends on post title. I think blogger should mostly make attention towards the post title. If they do it, then there need not any other optimization. There should be a particular reason to give your blog high rank by Google. If your content quality is best, then it can be a reason or if you get most visitor by referral or any other techniques. So you have to think about increasing the rank of your blog and getting more traffic by only optimizing your blog post title. Now lets see some tips and tricks that help all all the time to optimize your blog.

What is SEO Friendly Post Title?-

Post title is a topic that a blogger is going to write some useful information staying around it.
Title is content itself. The information or content without title can not catch visitors eyes on your posts. So it is fact that you should give a title of your content and the title should be appropriate and optimized.
Title should be appropriate to your content which should be short and sweet also. Here is three key things that a blogger should remember while he is writing an article about any topics.
  1. Keyword tool should be used to analyze keywords.
  2. Length of title should be maximum 66 characters.
  3. Word should be clear, concise and attracive
Google keyword analysis tool:-
google keyword analysis tool
Do not write any article randomly which can not be search engine friendly. So to know what to write, use the Google keywords analysis tools.
keyword planner toolGoogle Keyword Tool
To find out the which word is mostly searched globally in this time, use Google keyword planner Tools. There you can find the high ranked keywords. This service provides by GOOGLE adword campaign. See these pictures where you can see how to use the google keyword planner.


Title length should be less than 70 characters:-

Use title which only has 70 characters maximum. Use one keyword in title as possible. If you use more than one keywords in your title, then there might be confusion on what your post is about and search engine shows the title by chopping.

Make clear, concise and attractive title:-

Mostly searching keywords are attractive, so it can be attractive title. If your title is that keyword which is mostly searched, ROBOTS love that title. ROBOTS mostly love clear and concise titles.

You will understand clearly by the following examples:-

Example 1:
"Learn About How to Automatically Post Your Blog Post in Facebook ?"
 Example 2:
"How to Automatically Post Blog Posts in Facebook"

In above, the first example looks some clumsy and unfriendly to the users. There you also can find the unnecessary phrase in beginning. But second example is good and which consist 59 characters only and it seems very good to search engine optimization.

In summary, just follow these points to make your optimized post title:-

  1. Use Google keyword planner tool.
  2. Check you spell correctly or not.
  3. Make title clear, concise, short and sweet.
  4. Length of title should be less than 70 characters.
  5. Start your post title with phrase like 'How to', 'Free', 'Top 10' etc.